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The Glossary is meant to be a malleable artefact that changes dynamically as the partners attempt to express and share their understandings for the terms used in the context of the Metafora Project. As the Project proceeds, we expect that the partners will continue revising the terms and the definitions it contains and use it as means for reflection and negotiation among them, especially for terms to which different partners attribute different senses or meanings. As the Glossary depicts an instance of the ongoing process described above, we will always use as an indicator the date in which it was retrieved from the non public pages of the Metafora Website.

GLOSSARY
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Term Definition
Activity

a set of actions carried out by all or part of a group of students, defined according to some pedagogically purposeful criteria; for example, arguing over constructions within a microworld, or discussing the results of a search of information. It has both a situated and a social nature within a plan. In terms of the situated nature, it is sensitive to its complex intentional effects during planning and also to local circumstances and resources. In terms of the social nature, an activity is always assigned with social meanings by actors (learners) and its socio-cultural context.

Analysis

The system can analyze, using AI techniques, the learner's activities according to top-down (predefined) categories or following a bottom-up approach, for example by employing data mining techniques. The purpose of the analysis is to provide the teacher and/or learner with useful feedback about their activities, such as whether they appear to be effectively engaged (or not). The analysis is not expected to be fine grained and detailed, but rather more general, providing general guidance to users. The analysis will take into account activities students take in both the microworld and argumentation environment, integrating the activities into a coherent whole.

Argumentation Workspace

A software tool used by students to discuss and debate over an issue or a concept identified by the students as debatable or provided to them as a challenge by the teacher. The Argumentation Workspace is intended to provide a collaborative environment, in conjunction with the use of simulations and microworlds, for students to reflect upon and discuss activities they are engaged in within Metafora. Examples of Argumentation Workspaces are LASAD and Digalo.

Challenge

The challenge is the end goal of the Scenario (what the students are supposed to do and achieve) as communicated to the students. The main characteristics of the challenge are: a)to raising curiosity, b)stimulate the students to invest effort and ingenuity in the solution or other requested outcome. The Challenge should not be confused with the Activities that are undertaken to address it.

Constructionism

Epistemology of learning associated with pedagogy (educational design) and theory of learning. The basic facets of constructionism are a) the existence of (a) malleable artifact(s) b) the learner engagement through bricolage and argumentation, c) focusing on, playing with the mechanism of how things work.

Design based Research

Design Based Research (Cobb et al., 2003, Design based research collective, 2003) Some basic points of which are: a) Grounded on theory and relevant research results b) Includes the design and implementation of an intervention in a specific setting/situation c) Reflection is integral part of the methodology d) Conclusions are used as the basis for designing a new intervention e) The theory resulting is situated and contextualized.

Dialogic

(or Dialogical) refers to the idea that the meaning of an utterance or communicative act is not fixed but exists dynamically in relationship, both as a response to previous utterances or acts and as an anticipation of future responses. Whereas for monologic there is one true meaning of an utterance or communicative act or text that can be found, for dialogic there is always a tension between multiple perspectives.

Dialogic space

is the sort of space in which it becomes possible to reflect on ideas and see them from lots of different points of view at once (Wegerif, 2010).

Dialogue

a mutually responsive interaction between two or more agents. Bakhtin distinguishes dialogues from the broader category of conversation by the fact that in dialogues answers give rise to further questions. Dialogue therefore covers both shared inquiry and co-construction.

Feedback

Any advice or guidance provided by the Metafora system to help students and teachers in tackling the 'Challenge.' The Feedback will be generated by the AI-based Analysis component.

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